Findings: Some Highlights

Breast Cancer Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)/Stroke Colon Cancer Hip Fracture Cognitive Functioning Eye Disease
Smoking No relation with past or current smoking Strong positive associationwith CHD and stroke; risk reduced within 2-4 years of smoking cessation. Increases risk of colon cancer. Increases risk of hip fracture for current smokers. Risk increases with greater number of cigarettes smoked per day. Not examined. Increases risk of cataracts and “wet” AMD (the most severe form of Age-related Macular Degeneration).
Oral Contraceptives Current use increases risk. Past use no association. Current use increases risk. Past use no association. Reduces risk of colon cancer. Not examined. Not examined. Reduces risk of “wet” AMD.
Postmenopausal Hormones More than 5 years of estrogen plus progestins increases risk. More than 10 years of estrogen alone increases risk. Current use increases risk of stroke. Current use among recently menopausal women may reduce the risk of CHD. Reduces risk of colon cancer. Reduces risk of hip fracture for current users. No relation to cognitive function. Current use reduces risk of high tension glaucoma and “wet” AMD.
Obesity Increases risk among postmenopausal women. Weight loss after menopause is associated with reduced risk. Strong positive relationship between weight (BMI) and risk of CHD as well as stroke. Weight gain after age 18 increases risk of stroke and CHD. Increases risk of colon cancer. Strong protection against hip fracture, in large part due to extra padding around the hips. Not examined. Increases risk of cataracts and AMD.
Alcohol One or more drinks per day increases risk. Moderate alcohol intake reduces the risk of CHD. Two or more drinks per day increases risk. High consumption increases the risk of hip fracture. However, low or moderate consumption is associated with greater bone density. Moderate intake (½ –1 serving per day) reduces risk of cognitive impairment. No relation to age related eye diseases.
Diet Higher intake of red meat increases risk of premenopausal breast cancer. A Mediterranean-type diet reduces risk of incident CHD and stroke. Fish intake reduces risk of stroke. Nut and wholegrain consumption reduces risk of CHD. Refined carbohydrates and trans fats increase risk. Higher intakes of folate, vitamin B6, calcium and vitamin D reduces risk. High intake of red and processed meats increases risk. Reduction of risk with calcium supplement use among women with low calcium diets; higher dietary calcium intake has no effect. Vitamin D intake reduces risk and retinol intake increases risk. Higher vegetable intake, especially green leafy vegetables, reduces risk of cognitive impairment. Some antioxidants reduce risk of cataracts and AMD. Higher intake of fish may reduce risk of cataracts and AMD.
Physical Activity Physical activity (>3 hours/ week) reduces risk. Physical activity, including walking, reduces risk of CHD and stroke. Physical activity reduces risk. More physical activity, including walking, reduces risk of hip fracture. Moderate physical activity reduces risk of cognitive impairment. No relation to age related eye diseases.
Other Exposures Family history of breast cancer, high breast density, high circulating hormone levels, and shift work all increase risk. Snoring is associated with a modest but significantly increased risk of CHD and stroke. Aspirin reduces risk after 10 years of use. Family history increases risk up to four-fold for women younger than 50. Diabetes increases risk of hip fracture. Increasing years spent working rotating night shifts increases risk of hip fracture. Type 2 diabetes and higher levels of insulin even in women without diabetes increases risk of cognitive impairment. Diabetes increases risk of glaucoma and cataracts. Positive family history and African heritage increases risk of glaucoma.